Francis Joseph in Czernowitz


August 18 is the birthday of Francis Joseph, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary. On this day, the Austro-Hungarian pilgrim house in Jerusalem hangs out on its façade the huge double Austro-Hungarian flag made in 1880, which was seen in 2014 in the Weltuntergang exhibition in Vienna, in the room dedicated to the Austro-Hungarian gunners fighting in the Holy Land. We, however, were able to pay tribute before the statue of the old monarch on this illustrious day only in the “Jerusalem along the Prut”, as Czernowitz was called in his day.


That a statue of Francis Joseph still stands in the capital of the former model Hapsburg province, Bukovina, in itself would be a sensation in the Ukraine, where hardly any monument from the “brave old world” has survived the Soviet regime. Especially not a statue of the ruler of a previous empire, if even that of John Sobieski, King of Poland, who had a much better renown as the scourge of the Turks, whose monument was exiled in 1945 from Lemberg, together with his people. The real sensation, however, is that this statue was erected not a century ago, but quite recently, in 2009. This shows how times are changing in Czernowitz, and how the nostalgia for pre-war Galicia, as the last golden age of the country, has taken over all of Western Ukraine.

Vlodko Kostyrko: Golden Galicia, 2009. From the exhibition Mythos Galizien, Vienna, 2015

The other special feature of the statue is that it was not erected by the city or by the Ukrainian government. Not even by an association, like the  “Verein zur Verschönerung der Stadt Czernowitz”, which in 1998 restored the memorial plaque of 1908 on the “Habsburghöhe” behind the university, originally dedicated to the 60th anniversary of Francis Joseph’s reign. But rather by a private citizen, on his own expense. Maybe for the reason that if the statue caused politically too great a scandal, the city could wash its hands of the matter. But also, if the bold gesture proved successful, it could bring significant political capital to the one who erected it. And this is what happened. The statue was erected by Arseny Yatsenyuk, the recently resigned president of the Ukrainian parliament, at his own expense, according to the inscription, “as a gift to the inhabitants of Czernowitz”, just before announcing his candidacy in the Ukrainian presidential elections, which he would win only five years later, in 2014, after the Kiev Revolution. Yatsenyuk comes from an old Czernowitz family, his father is a vice-dean in the university of the city, originally named after Francis Joseph, where he also graduated, thus the donation can be also considered as a gesture of a local patriot to his hometown. Nevertheless, the leaders of the local and provincial government, as well as the Austrian Embassador in Ukraine also participated in the inauguration of the statue on 3 October 2009. On that occasion, Yatsenyuk emphasized in his speech, that he was inspired “not by a nostalgia for the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, but the recognition of the achievements of the Empire”.

franzjosef franzjosef franzjosef franzjosef franzjosef franzjosef franzjosef franzjosef

This statue can be also considered the restration of a previous monument. Until 1918, a few streets further south, in the so-called National Park stood the statue of Francis Joseph, which was the model of the sculptors the present one, Segei Ivanov and Volodymyr Tsisarik. The statue depicted the monarch not in a solemn, representative posture, but as a walking figure. This is how the citizens of Czernowitz saw him on his third and last visit to the city, in September 1880, when, after having participated on the Yom Kippur Day ceremony in the Great Synagogue, he traversed on foot the streets of the “Little Vienna” lying on the eastern border of the Empire, and he even spoke to passers-by, which increased in no small measure his popularity in the city’s historical memory. The modern monument omits the pedestal, thus allowing the emperor to mingle again with the passers-by.




The original statue was destroyed by the invading Romanian army. Later National Park was built over. Its area is now covered partly by the city stadium, and partly by Guzar Street. This is why the founders choose a nearby site for the new monument, the former Ferdinand Park next to the former Roman Catholic cathedral.

The choice of the site is full of significance. The church of the Heart of Jesus was built by the Jesuit order between 1891 and 1894. The Jesuits arrived in 1885 from Silesia, which at that time still belonged to Germany, while their provincial, Frank Eberhardt – after whom the street in front of the church was named by the grateful city – from Berlin. They undertook the pastoral care of the local Germans, who amounted to 80% of the city’s Catholic population, so this is the time when the earlier Catholic church, the Holy Cross on Main Street definitively became the “Polish church”. When later the secret clause of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact ceded Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, and in 1940, before Stalin took his share, Hitler “repatriated” the Bukovina Germans, the church lost its adherents, and the Soviet regime converted it into a state archive. Still today the stumps of the moulded steel supports of the shelves can be seen drilled into the walls.






The church was emptied after the change of regime, and in this year returned to the Catholic church. I just saw it first opened. Inside, a real abandoned places feeling receives us, with crumbling plaster and broken-down organ choir. However, the archival use preserved the church from the worst danger, the penetration of water and fungi. Not much is missing to make it again the Catholic cathedral of the city. And if they do so, the square will also revalorized, and the emperor’s statue will once again stand in a central place of Czernowitz.






That the square already plays an important role in the city’s memory is shown by the small “folk memorial” standing next to it. The wooden panels leaned against the cross decorated with fresh and artificial flowers and wreaths announce: “Here stood the chapel of St. Anthony, preacher of the Word of God from Italian Padua”. The 13th-century Portuguese Franciscan St. Anthony of Padua is still extremely popular in Catholic folk religion as the patron of lost things, affairs and people, of whom over the last century there were plenty in Czernowitz. This “substitute monument” is a remarkably Ukrainian genre. These are established when still there is no money for a real monument, but they already want to indicate the sanctity of the place. As the plaque in Simferopol which announces that “the Armenian church will be reborn here”, or the barely visible stone in the market place of Zhovkva, that “the Shevchenko monument will stand here”.


We line up in front of the emperor’s statue, we take selfies with him, which a century ago would have been impossible to the passers-by of Czernowitz, and not only for technical reasons. Then we congratulate him with the song “God, keep our emperor”, written by another Franz Josef, by family name Haydn. The modern passers-by of Czernowitz stop by, and listen benevolently to our veneration.


F. J. Haydn: Gott erhalte unsern Kaiser


Come with us to Iran! 1. In the historic cities on the feast of Ashura. 2. The centuries-old desert towns of Iran


After last year’s highly successful tour to Iran, and this June’s photo tour in Iranian Kurdistan, now we invite our readers on two new Iranian trips. Although they are two independent one-week tours, we announce them in one post, so that if you want, you can participate on both, and with a minimum of repetition see new things on each. The first route leads us through the historic cities of Iran in the festive week of Ashura, while the second tour is an expedition to the lesser known thousand-year-old towns of the Iranian desert.

We arrive to both tours by plane, through Istanbul to Tehran. The flight starts in the night preceding the program (on 9 and 16 October, respectively) from Istanbul, and arrives early the next morning (10 and 17 October) in Tehran. The flight back from Tehran is also at dawn, on 17 and 24. The price of the flight tickets, due to the uncertain conditions in Istanbul, is at a historic low point: it is only 120 euros from Istanbul and back from Tehran with the Turkish Pegasus Airlines company.

Whether you have already decided, or you need some further encouragement to make the right decision, here you can read our collected posts on our previous Iranian tours and on Iran.


• First journey. On the feast of Ashura in the historic cities (9-17 October)

The two consecutive days of Tasuʿa and Ashura are the largest celebration of Shiite Iran. Fifteen hundred years ago, on 10 October 680, or, according to the Islamic calendar, on the tenth day of the month of Muharram, the soldiers sent by the perfidious Sunni caliph Yazid clashed at the city of Kerbala in Irak with the army of the true Imam, Husayn. The battle ended with the murder of the Imam and his folowers. On this day, the whole Shiite world mourns that event, and that with the defeat, the complete Shiite trend went off the shoreline in the history of Islam. Nevertheless, most Iranians do not experience Ashura as a feast of mourning. In the celebrations organized on these two days and during the following week, they rather rejoice that the true faith has survived all trials, and that when the last Imam, the Mahdi, descendant of Husayn, will come back at the end of days together with the Christian Jesus to restore the rule of justice, the Shiites will regain their legitimate rights, and the Sunnis – particularly the despised Arabs – will finally sink to the bottom of hell. This is what they celebrate, this they re-enact in parades with the participation of hundreds of people and in bazaar theater plays, prior to which they organize free public dinners in every Iranian city, especially in the historic cities. Therefore, it is the best time to go through the historic cities and get acquainted with them, from Tehran through the wonderful merchant cities of Kashan and Isfahan, and the centers of ancient Persia, Pasargade and Persepolis, to Shiraz, the hometown of poets, roses and wine.




10 October: The feast of Tasuʿa in Kashan

Our flight leaving Istanbul on 9 October arrives at 10 in the early morning at the airport of Tehran. Here we are awaited by the but that will take us to Kashan, the thousand-year-old caravanserai-city. On halfway we stop in the town of Qom, in “the Shiite Vatican”, where the commemorative rites go on all night in the gorgeous mosques. Our Kashan accommodation will be in the four-century-old Kamal-ol-Molk guest house, and our Kurdish friends who run it will be with us throughout the course of the holiday, just as they did last year. In the morning we will make up for our backlog of sleep, and then starting at noon we immerse ourselves in the feasting city. Together with the locals we enjoy the lunch that the local mosques offer for free. We wander through the old clay town of Kashan, from the alleys of the bazaar to the Agha Bozorg Mosque. Late in the afternoon we take part in the festive parade, followed by a dinner in the mosque of our friends.


11 October: The feast of Ashura in Nushabad and Kashan

In the morning we go out to the nearby desert town of Nushabad, where on this day they commemorate the Battle of Kerbala with a great historic costume procession on camel and horseback. With the help of our friends, we try to penetrate into the famous underground city (World Heritage site), which is closed on the festival, but in Iran everything can be arranged through personal contacts. We visit the town’s mosque, and for the lunch we return to Kashan. In the afternoon we take part in the Ashura Day parade, and in the evening we will be hosted by the community of another mosque.


12 October: From Kashan through Abyaneh to Isfahan

In the morning we visit the historic merchant houses in Kashan, we go out to Shah Abbas’ five-century-old pleasure garden (World Heritage site), and then we set out to the Vulture Mountain, to Abyaneh, the Red Village, which was converted to Islam only a few hundred years ago, and still vividly preserves its ancient Persian Zoroastrian traditions. On the way we pass along the tanks guarding the Natanz uranium enrichment center (photographing is strictly prohibited, even from the bus, but looking is not), and we stop at the 13th-century Natanz mosque, built by the Mongol khans. Late in the afternoon we arrive in Isfahan.


13 October: Isfahan

Isfahan is the most beautiful city of Iran, which was also its capital for centuries. In this and the following day we tour the city. From our hotel in the center, through the huge bazaar, we reach the main square, which is considered by art historians to be among the world’s ten most beautiful squares. We visit the Imam Mosque, decorated with the blue tiles of Armenian craftsmen, the thousand-year-old Friday Mosque, we ramble in the eight-hundred-year old and still vivid Jewish quarter, the largest Jewish center in Iran, and we cross the five-hundred-year old Si-o-se, that is, the Thirty-three-hole Bridge, to see the Armenian quarter over the Zayande, that is, Life-giving river. We will visit Persian gardens and palaces, will begin the hopeless attempt of going through the entire bazaar, see nomadic carpets, have dinner in old tea houses, listen to traditional concerts.


14 October: From Isfahan through Persepolis to Shiraz

In the morning we go by bus to Shiraz. This is the longest track of our journey, 490 kilometers, but we do it on highway, and we stop at several beautiful views and historic sites, including Pasargade and Persepolis, the secular and sacred capitals of ancient Persia, impressive even in their ruins (both World Heritage sites). There I lead a detailed art historic tour at the well-preserved buildings, reliefs and king tombs. In the evening we arrive in Shiraz.


15 October: Shiraz and Tehran

In the morning we tour the old town of Shiraz, the bazaar, the beautiful mosques and merchant houses, we have a siesta in a traditional teahouse. In the afternoon we fly back with a domestic flight to Tehran.


16 October: Tehran

In our last day in Tehran we summarize our impressions. We tour the city’s pre-revolutionary center, established in the 1930s by Shah Reza Pahlavi in elegant art deco style, we walk along Lalehzar Street, a ghost street still preserving the spirit of the former “Moulin Rouge of Tehran”, we visit the magnificent ancient Persian exhibition of the National Museum. We picnic in Taʿbiat Park, at the largest pedestrian bridge of the world, opened just a year ago, and we have a farewell dinner in the bohemian Darband district, above the city, in a traditional teahouse. Whosoever at this point leaves us, will fly back in the early morning to Istanbul.


• Second journey. The centuries-old desert towns of Iran (16-24 October)

“The desert is beautiful, because it hides a well somewhere”, writes Saint-Exupéry in The Little Prince. And the Iranian desert is but a network of wells. This network is the system of qanats, the vaulted underground aqueducts from the foot of the hill, above which a multitude of thousand-year-old towns are thriving, and whch were included in this year in the list of World Heritage Sites.

“In contrast to us Europeans, the Iranians do not consider the desert as a wilderness. The Indo-European names for this land, desert, Wüste, pustina, come from the Latin, Germanic or Slavic words for “abandoned, empty”, while the origin of Persian کویر kavir is the verb “surround, accept”, related to Latin capere. The Iranian city dwellers go on excursons and picnics to the desert with the same excitement and curiosity as we go to the mountains,” I wrote a year ago, in the introduction to the desert photo album of the renowned Iranian photographer Nasrollah Kasraian, whose images you should necessarily browse through if you want to see what the desert means to the Persians: the abundance stemming from nothing, the true value of life surrounded by devastation, the garden of paradise, whose image was born here, and which is still called by its original Old Persian name paradeis, a walled garden, irrigated with well water, wonderfully productive in the middle of the desert.

It is these gardens of paradise, the wonderful thousand-year-old clay towns built on the qanat system, that we will tour during this journey.




17 October: Arrival to Kashan

The Istanbul flight of 16 October will land on the 17th at dawn in the airport of Tehran; those remaining from the previous tour will meet the newcomers. We board our bus and travel to Kashan, where we arrive late in the morning. After a few hours we visit the old town of Kashan, as well as Shah Abbas’ five-century-old garden of delights (World Heritage site). In the evening we have dinner in a gorgeous traditional tea house next to the garden.


18 October: Karshahi Fortress, Matin Abad

In the morning we visit the historic merchant houses in Kashan, and then we set out to the south along the fringe of the desert. At Matin Abad we first penetrate into the desert, thirty kilometer deep, to visit the medieval clay fortress of Karshahi, which is the largest fortress of this kind at the foot of the Misty Mountains until the restoration of that of Bam (World Heritage site), which partly collapsed in the earthquake of 2003. We sleep in the eco village of Matin Abad.


19 October: Through Ardestan to Nain

From Matin Abad we continue our journey to the south. We stop in the ancient city of Ardestan, we visit the mosque converted from a Zoroastrian fire temple, we walk about in the pomegranate-producing town. In the afternoon we arrive in Nain, in the ancient trading town lying at the crossing of caravan routes at the edge of the desert. Here our friend Mohamad, the local museum director – an impressive perpetual motion, defender of the local traditions, as well as a poet and an excellent English-speaking guide – leads us around the city, the thousand-year-old mosque and in the traditional weaving village two kilometers away. We spend the night in the town, in a traditional hotel converted from a Qajar-era merchant house.


20-21 October: In the heart of the desert. Farahzad and Garmeh

This morning we penetrate eastward into the heart of the desert. The road passes through amazing lunar landscapes, at the foot of barren mountains. We stop at the little town of Anarak, which seems to be a Persian edition of the Tuscan hill towns, and elsewhere at the most beautiful mountain formations. By evening we arrive in the oasis town of Farahzad, where we stay in a family pension established in a centuries-old merchant house and caravanserai. The next morning we make a trip between the desert dunes, where we are taught to ride on the camels of the seventy-strong family herd. In the afternoon we arrive at Garmeh, the other oasis village, at the foot of majestic mountains, in the middle of a beautiful palm grove. Here we stay in another centuries-old family pension, similar to that of Farahzad, where our host, Maziyar, the widely known performer of Persian classical music, plays for us, provided he is not performing in Tehran or Isfahan.

Fine print: Both our pensions in Farahzad and in Garmeh are the most sought-after ones, listed in Lonely Planet among the ten top places to stay in Iran. Nevertheless, they are very traditional guest houses, with tiny rooms, with Persian carpets on the floors instead of beds, and with shared bathroom-toilets. This inconvenience must be taken if you venture this far in the desert, where tourists are still rare birds, and there is no other hotel. However, the inconvenience is abundantly counterbalanced by all the good impressions, and it even helps to experience how the inhabitants of these small towns, visited by us as outsiders, have lived for thousands of years.


22 October: From Garmeh to Yazd

On the way from Garmeh to the south, we stop at the clay town of Bayazeh, we wander around the thousand-year-old fortress, through the maze of the centuries-old houses we get to know the structure of the towns of the desert. Further along the way to Yazd, we go up between the mountains to visit the temple of Chak-Chak, the most important Zoroastrian pilgrimage site in Iran. In the evening we reach Yazd, where we again stay in a hotel converted from a traditional merchant house, but already provided with all the Western comforts, similar to that of Nain and Kashan.


23 October: Yazd and back to Tehran

In Yazd, the caravanserai town on the edge of the desert used to gather the caravans coming from north and west, before they crossed the desert. We submerge into the maze of the old town built of clay, visit still-working caravanserais, centuries-old mosques, merchant houses, sanctuaries. The Zoroastrian religion of ancient Persia – which is tolerated by Islam as a “religion of the book” – has the most followers in Yazd, so we will visit Zoroastrian shrines and “towers of silence” outside the town, where the bodies of the dead were placed to decompose, so they may not contaminate the sacred elements of earth, water and fire. We will have our farewell dinner in a traditional caravanserai, and in the evening we fly back to Tehran, from where we return home the next morning.


We will do both journeys first class – according to Iranian categories, “VIP” buses (fine print again: if for the desert tour the bus is not full, then it will be more profitable to rent cars, but more about that later). The participation fee for each tour is € 790, which includes accommodation (half of a two-bed room) with breakfast, traditional Iranian dinner for all seven days, the rented bus, the domestic flight to Tehran from Shiraz (first journey) and Yazd (second journey), as well as the guide fluent in Persian and versed in Iranian history and culture, that is, me. Participation in both tours is only € 1480 instead of 1580. Add to this the price of the flight ticket (approx. € 250 there and back), and the Iranian visa (approx. € 85) to be purchased on arrival at the Tehran airport. Deadline for application: 11 September, Sunday at the usual address wang@studiolum.com.


Invisible cities. Czernowitz, where people and books lived


“A Czech architect who studied in Vienna and became immersed in the characteristics of Bukovinian folk architecture and art, builds up with the help of local Hutsul, Polish and Romanian craftsmen and artists the palace of the Romanian Orthodox Metropolite in Czernowitz – can you imagine a more convincing example of a mutual cross-fertilization of cultures?” (Martin Pollack: Mythos Czernowitz)
Czernowitz, wo Menschen und Bücher lebten. This is how Paul Celan, the great poet of Czernowitz remembers his native town, and it’s not sure which of the two is rarer and more flattering for a city. The easternmost large city of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy was created almost from nothing at the end of the 18th century, when Galicia and Bukovina became part of the Hapsburg empire. The Viennese government intended it from the beginning as a model city, where the representatives of all the nationalities of the Monarchy would harmoniously live with each other, united by the enlightened Hapbsburg government and the common German language. Each of the forty-two ethnic groups constituting the population of the city had their own social, religious and cultural institutions, societies, streets and newspapers, while they were proud that in all the empire, it was in Czernowitz where the most beautiful German was spoken. This diversity and unity of the city’s spirit was also reflected in its built texture, where the planned structure, the large public spaces and public buildings were in a harmonious balance with the quarters and institutions of the single nationalities.

This is the structure we will walk through on the next occasion of our “Invisible cities” series, on 17 September 4 p.m. in the FUGA Center of Architecture (Budapest, Petőfi Sándor u. 5.). In contrast to the previously examined cities, Prague and Tbilisi, Czernowitz became invisible not by destruction. Its old town still preserves its turn-of-the-century fabric virtually without change. Only its diverse and sophisticated culture disappeared, which had created this fabric and filled it with meaning. In our presentation we reconstruct this life and these meanings with the help of contemporary photos, descriptions and local press, thereby showing how Czernowitz indeed became a Hapsburg model city, and later a nostalgic “myth of Czernowitz”, still alive in the memory of its former inhabitants.




Chak Chak


When the traveler sets from Yazd, the adobe city standing on the edge of the desert, where for thousands of years the caravans gathered to start together on the thousand-kilometer-long road across the desert, and follows their traces toward east, the city of Mashhad lying on the other edge of the fertile fringe of the Iranian plate, after eighty kilometers arrives to the adobe village of Kharânaq. Here, a smaller road branches off the ancient caravan road sharply to the left, among the mountains bordering the road. It meanders between ragged mountains and barren rocks of bizarre shapes, where only the scattered dry tufts suggest some life, and the traces drawn in the sand by the snakes, who in the daytime hide from the scorching heat under earth. After thirty more kilometers an even narrower road turns left again, slowly spiraling in between the giant mountains. When we are already deep in the belly of the mountain, we suddenly catch sight of the sanctuary of Chak Chak, one of the holiest places of pilgrimage of the Zoroastrians, sticking high upon the huge mountain wall, like a swallow’s nest. At that point, a believer dismounts his horse or, more recently, parks his car, and continues his way on foot.




chak1 chak1 chak1 chak1 chak1 chak1 chak1 chak1 chak1 chak1 chak1 chak1 chak1 chak1 chak1 chak1 chak1


Chak Chak means drip-drip. This is how the cave sanctuary, opening in the rock wall, speaks, by falling a drop of water every few seconds on the floor of the sanctuary. The water flows out, and creates a small green life among the barren rocks. This gives the other name of the place: Pir-e Sabz, the Green Sanctuary.


The mountain mourns for Nikbanu, the daughter of the last Persian king, Yazdegerd III, who, when in 636 the Arab conquerors coming from nowhere destroyed the Persian army in the Battle of Qadisiyyah, fled to the east. Here she was caught up by the Arab horsemen sent to pursue her. To avoid falling among their hands, she prayed to the God of Zoroastrians, Ahura Mazda, to whose command the mountain opened up and embraced her.

We also climb on foot the steep stairs to the sanctuary. On both sides we read quotes from the Avesta, the holy book of the Zoroastrians, carved in stone or engraved on metal plates, in the original Old Iranian language, or translated to modern Persian. Not a soul can be seen, the large covered terraces are now empty, which between 14 and 18 June of each year accommodate thousands of Zoroastrian believers coming from all over the world. From the hot walls, large green lizards curiously stare after us. Planted in the middle of the stairs, a tall green cypress, Zarathustra’s sacred tree.


Arriving to the highest terrace, a door opens suddenly. A guard comes out. He absently greets us with a “ya Ali”, he is probably a Muslim guard paid by the Zoroastrians. He calls for an entrance fee and for donations. The he lethargically flops on the little chair, as if amidst the endless idleness even this much effort would be fatal. “Do you want some tea?” he asks the obligatory Persian question of courtesy, and, without waiting for the answer, he fills it only to himself. Then he continues staring into the space, like a particularly overgrown lizard.


The sanctuary might have been renewed in the days of the last Shah, perhaps in 1971, in preparation to the 2500th anniversary of the Persian monarchy, when the Pahlavi regime tried to efface the conservative Muslim clergy and petty bourgeoise by emphasizing the country’s national traditions. This is evoked by the retro feeling of the equipment, the pavement, the eternal lights, and the holder of the food offering, as well as the Persepolis bodyguards, the indispensable decoration of Pahlavi-era public buildings, on the bronze doors. A label states that we have to take our shoes off, we have to cover our head, and if we were in the days of menstruation, we could not enter the sanctuary. Inside, the holy water patiently drips on the floor, like it has done for several millennia. From the side of the shrine, a huge old plane tree grows out, which, according to tradition, is Nikebanu’s cane, and otherwise a holy tree in the Zoroastrian tradition. As Herodotus mentions it, when describing the way of Xerxes marching to the Greek war:

“…found a plane-tree, which he adorned with gold because of its beauty, and he assigned one of his immortals to guard it.” (Historiae, 7.31)


chak2 chak2 chak2 chak2 chak2 chak2 chak2 chak2

In the first centuries after the conquest, the Arabs took in possession rather the western half of Persia, the fertile plain of the large rivers, today’s Iraq. Yazd and its surroundings at the edge of the desert for another half millennia only payed tax to the caliph. An Arab governor and army were rarely seen here. The great number of local or refugee Persian Zoroastrians and Judes – for ten of Israel’s twelve tribes were settled here, “in the cities of Media”, after the Assyrian deportation – could freely practice their religion for a half thousand years. Only in the 13th century, after the establishment of the Muslim Yazd government, are the Zoroastrians and Judes chased from the old towns to the outskirts or the neighboring villages, where their communities have survived up to recent decades. Yazd is still a center of the few living Zoroastrian and Jewish communities in Iran, with a working fire temple, and, in a circle of a radius of 100 km, with fifty other pirs, holy places, the remains of former fire temples and holy sources.

Among the pirs stand out six ones, which are considered especially sacred, and where thousands of pilgrims come together between March and August of every year. The legends of them are identical: in all six places, a member of the fleeing royal family was embraced and hidden from their Muslim persecutors by the earth, one of the four Zoroastrian sacred elements. In Pir-e Sabz and Pir-e Banu, Princesses Nikbanu and Banu, in Pir-e Narestane, Prince Ardeshir, in Pir-e Naraki, the daughter of the governor of Persia, in Pir-e Herisht, the royal maid of honor Morvarid, and in Pir-e Seti, Queen Shahbanu Hastbadan herself. As the event had obviously no Persian witness at any place, therefore in all six locations the hidden majesty him- or herself appeared in the dream of a local shepherd or hunter several centuries later, entrusting him with the construction of a sanctuary.

The emblem of the Zoroastrians stenciled on the wall of a house in the desert town of Iraj

We do not know exactly how many children King Yazdegerd had. The Arabic, Shiite, Jewish, Bahaʿi, Indian and Chinese sources say different things, each trying to locate a royal descendant on his own half-court. However, Nikbanu and Banu, Prince Ardeshir and Morvarid are not mentioned by any source. Perhaps they were subsequently created by the Zoroastrian tradition, when they had to give a new meaning to those lonely sanctuaries, lying on the top of high mountains, where before the Islamic conquest they offered sacrifices to the one God, Ahura Mazda, as Herodotus writes:

“It is not their custom to set up statues and temples and altars, because they have never believed the gods to be like men, as the Greeks do; but they call the whole circuit of heaven Zeus, and to him they sacrifice on the highest peaks of the mountains.” (Historiae, 1.132)

According to the Zoroastrian theology, every soul returns to heaven, to God the Creator. Thus they need no holy intermediaries. Therefore they do not go on pilgrimage to the graves of holy persons, to seek for their intercession, as the Shiites or the Christians do. Their sites of pilgrimage are the locations of memory. In the pilgrimage season from March to August, when they go from sanctuary to sanctuary, they tour and refresh in their memory a sacred topography, like the Christians who follow the traces of Jesus in the Holy Land, or the Jews who on pilgrimage to the wall of the Temple. This is the topography of their religion, which developed in Iran, and was fixed in the Avesta.

Several items of this topography are missing by now, those holy places, which were carefully expropriated by the Islam through the building of a mosque, as they expropriated the memory of the Jewish Temple with the Dome of the Rock. The missing items are compensated by incorporating into the tradition such sanctuaries, which are not mentioned in the Avesta, and which were originally only sacrificial sites, but now, linked to the last Zoroastrian royal family, become part of the sacred geography of the Zoroastrian memory. As the sanctuary of the Indian Udvada, the most important Zoroastrian place of pilgrimage is called Iranshah, and dedicated to the returning King of Iran, and as the Zoroastrian years are still calculated from the ascension to the throne of the last king Yazdegerd III, so are the former sanctuaries linked to the members of the royal family. By visiting them again and again, they embrace their former land and and make it again theirs. In the tears dropped by the mountain, as the historical summary reads on the sanctuary wall, they see the tears of the orphans and the oppressed. In the fate of Nikbanu, they recognize their own fate.